You already know that the regular verbs make their past simple form (and the past participle) by adding -ed at the end.
There are three different ways of pronouncing this ending. The pronunciation depends on the sound at the end of the infinitive of the main verb and whether it is voiced or not:
- When the last sound before -ed is voiced (which means you will feel your vocal cords vibrate), the -ed sound is /d/.
- When the last sound before -ed is voiceless (which means you won’t feel your vocal cords vibrate), the -ed sound is /t/.
- When the last sound before -ed is /t/ or /d/, the -ed sound is /id/.
infinitives that end in an unvoiced sound
infinitives that end in the sounds
/t/ or /d/